Human Milk Fortification – Evidence Related to Bovine vs Human Milk Derived
Miami Neonatology 2023—47th Annual International Conference

You must be signed in to view this CME course.

This education is about:

  • Whether a link exists between the use of human milk fortifiers and long-term developmental outcomes
  • Important considerations when using various fortifier products
  • A critique of the evidence around human milk- and bovine-based fortifiers and the risk of NEC 
  • Reasons why special considerations are needed when using donor milk

Why it matters:

Human milk fortifier is necessary to meet the metabolic needs of preterm infants, who require higher intakes of protein, calcium, and phosphorus to optimize growth. Recent studies on human milk-based and bovine-based fortifiers are reviewed and critiqued to reveal the impact of these fortifiers on the risk of NEC, growth and other outcomes.

Target Audience:

Developed to support physicians, nurses, registered dietitians, and other healthcare professionals who have an interest in newborns, infants, and toddlers.

Course Credit:

0.5 AMA PRA Category 1 CreditTM
0.5 ANCC Contact hour(s)
0.5 CA-BRN Contact hour(s)
0.5 CDR Contact hour(s)
0.5 Pharmacology hour(s).


Opens: 2024-02-29
Closes: 2026-02-28

This is video from a live conference presentation on November 14, 2023. It has been reviewed for CE credit through February 2026.

This activity is supported by an educational grant from Mead Johnson Nutrition.
  • Brenda Poindexter, MD, MS

    Chief, Division of Neonatology
    System Medical Director for Neonatology
    Marcus Professor of Pediatrics
    Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta and Emory University
    Atlanta, Georgia

Learning Objectives

  • Recognize why fortification of human milk is necessary for preterm infants
  • Summarize current evidence related to human milk-based human milk fortifiers, including the impact on NEC, growth, and other important outcomes
  • Evaluate special considerations with the use of donor milk
  • Emphasize that further study is needed to identify the ideal source and nutrient profile for human milk fortifiers